On December 20, 2019, federal legislation was signed into law raising the minimum legal sales age from 18 to 21 nationwide. This is a positive step forward for tobacco use prevention. However, in order to be effective, any law must be properly enforced. States and localities can still pass or strengthen their own age of sale laws with stringent enforcement requirements that ensure retailers are following the law. Read more about strong enforcement practices below. While the FDA has stated that this policy in now effect, it has 180 days to issue a final rule carrying out implementation and enforcement of the law. See the FDA’s Frequently Asked Questions about the new law for additional information. 

“Tobacco 21” policies are a way to keep harmful, addictive products – like cigarettes, cigars, and electronic nicotine systems – out of the reach of young people, whose developing brains are being wired with lifelong habits. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, over 80% of adults who still smoke got started before they turned 18, and nearly 95% started before age 21.[1] Many states that increased their minimum legal sales age to 21 have seen fewer young adults become smokers as a result. Raising the minimum legal sale age to 21, along with proven tobacco control strategies, can help prevent youth tobacco use.

What is the Minimum Legal Sale Age?

The minimum legal sale age (MLSA) prohibits retailers from selling tobacco products to anyone under that age. Until recently, in most places across the country, that age was set at 18. Three states (Alaska, Alabama, and New Hampshire) had a minimum age of 19. However, historical news archives and tobacco industry documents reveal this was not always the case. In 1920, at least one third of states had a MLSA of 21, but those laws were eroded in part due to aggressive tobacco industry lobbying.[2] Now, a movement has led to a return to this nationwide standard of 21 as the minimum legal sales age for all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. 

The Tobacco 21 Movement 

In 2005, Needham, Massachusetts was the first town in the US to enact a law raising the MLSA to 21. As a result, smoking rates decreased by 47%, three times as much in the four years following as rates in towns surrounding Needham.[34]  New York City made news in October, 2013 when they passed historic tobacco control legislation, including raising the MLSA to 21. Many communities nationwide have now followed suit, including Cleveland, OH, Chicago, IL, and many localities in the Greater Kansas City Area. As of December 2019, the total list includes 530+ cities and counties across 31 states, including 19 state-wide laws: 

  1. In June 2015, Hawaii became the first state to raise the MSLA to 21, effective January 1, 2016. 
  2. California became the second state to do so on May 4, 2016, effective June 9, 2016. However, their policy exempts active duty military personnel. 
  3. New Jersey raised their age from 19 to 21 in July 2017, effective November 1, 2017.
  4. Maine’s legislature overrode their governor’s veto to raise the age on August 2, 2017, effective July 1, 2018.
  5. Oregon’s legislature passed a bill raising the age to 21 in July 2017, and Governor Kate Brown signed it into law on August 9, 2017, effective January 1, 2018.
  6. Massachusetts raised the age to 21 in July 2018, effective December 31, 2018. Between Needham, MA’s law in 2005 and the statewide law in 2018, over 230 Massachusetts towns and counties had also raised the age, including Boston. 
  7. Virginia raised the age to 21 in February 2019, effective July 1, 2019. However, public health groups have a number of concerns with the effectiveness of this law as written. Learn more here.
  8. Utah raised raised their minimum age from 19 to 21 with a bill signed by the Governor on March 25, 2019, effective July 1, 2021. However, the policy excludes active duty military, as well as their spouses and dependents, and preempts local laws relating the sale, placement, display of tobacco and vaping products.
  9. Arkansas‘s governor signed a law raising the purchase, use, and possession age to 21 on March 28, 2019, effective May 1, 2019. However, it also exempts active duty military and preempts local laws relating to the sale of tobacco products.
  10. Washington‘s governor signed a law raising the legal sales age to 21 on April 5, 2019, effective January 1, 2020. 
  11. Illinois‘s governor signed a law raising the legal sales age to 21 on April 7, 2019, effective July 1, 2019.
  12. Delaware‘s governor signed a law raising the legal sales age to 21 on April 17, 2019, effective July 16, 2019.
  13. Maryland‘s governor signed a law raising the legal sales age to 21 on May 13, 2019, effective October 1, 2019. However, it exempts active duty military over age 18.
  14. Vermont‘s governor signed a law raising the legal sales age to 21 on May 16, 2019, effective September 1, 2019. However, it does maintain the state’s purchase, use, and possession law. 
  15. Texas‘s governor signed a law raising the legal age to to 21 on June 7, 2019, effective September 1, 2019. However, it exempts members of the military, penalizes youth and clerks, and preempts local governments from passing their own Tobacco 21 laws. 
  16. Connecticut‘s governor signed a law raising the legal age to 21 on June 18, 2019, effective October 1, 2019. 
  17. New York‘s governor signed a law raising the legal sales age to 21 on July 16, 2019, effective November 13, 2019. 
  18. Ohio‘s governor signed a state budget bill that raises the legal age for tobacco to 21 on July 18, 2019, effective immediately. However, it includes purchase, use, and possession provisions rather than placing the responsibility on the retailer. 
  19. Pennsylvania‘s governor signed a law raising the purchase age for tobacco products to 21 on November 27, 2019, effective July 1, 2020. The policy exempts military service members and veterans.

The idea enjoys broad public support from 75% of nationally surveyed adults, including from people who currently smoke and from individuals aged 13-17 [5] and 18-21, who would be most impacted by the law. [67] Public support is consistent across all regions of the US and is higher than support for raising the age to 19 or 20 years. [8] The policy has also been endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Some areas have found that Tobacco 21 policies can be developed and adopted in a shorter timeframe and with fewer resources, can be targeted to a smaller group of stakeholders, and are perceived as less politically risky than other tobacco control measures such as smoke-free policies.[9]

Sales Age vs. Purchase Age and Enforcement 

One challenge for implementation within the Tobacco 21 movement has been around enforcement. A best practice is to place the burden of responsibility on the tobacco retailer rather than on the underage purchaser. For example, in March 2012, the City of Chicago voted to raise the MLSA for tobacco to 21 and removed the fine for possession of tobacco for those underage, holding the tobacco seller accountable rather than young people who have been targeted by the tobacco industry. However, some cities and states have included provisions or maintained existing provisions that penalize tobacco purchase, use, and/or possession (PUP) by under-age individuals. The evidence of the effectiveness of PUP provisions in reducing youth tobacco use is limited, particularly among those at higher risk for smoking, and the laws may have adverse consequences for youth already addicted, divert police resources, and open the door to inequitable enforcement against young people of color [10]  Model Tobacco 21 policies recommend replacing PUP laws and any criminal penalties with a civil penalty structure. Learn more about PUP laws in the following resources: 

Some localities have also implemented policies that require clerks to be above the legal minimum sales age for tobacco in order to reduce sales to minors. In a test conducted in Massachusetts, in which underage people who smoke attempted to purchase cigarettes, researchers found that when the underage purchasers were attempting to purchase from underage clerks, their chances of purchasing successfully went up dramatically. However, this may limit jobs for teenagers and young adults, a concern in many rural areas.

In order for policies raising the minimum legal sales age for tobacco products to 21 to be impactful, they must be adequately enforced. Best practices include having an articulated plan for enforcement with responsibility given to a single agency, ongoing compliance checks with a minimum number of checks for each retailer per year, creating a tobacco retailer licensing program, providing dedicated funding for enforcement, having high penalties (e.g. high fines, license suspension or revocation) for violators, and practicing merchant education.[11] In addition, some researchers suggest that as repeat violators have their license to sell tobacco revoked, a “cap and winnow” policy could be implemented that prevents them from being reissued, reducing tobacco retailer density and further reducing access to tobacco.[11] For more information, review Raising the Tobacco Sale Age to 21: Building Strong Enforcement into the Law and Synar Compliance: E-Cigarette and T21 Laws. Research shows that neighborhoods with higher proportions of Black, Latino, and young residents are more likely to have higher rates of underage sales[12] Oversampling for inspection in these areas may help ensure retailer compliance and reduce this disparity, [12]  for instance, by using stratified, cluster sampling at the zip-code or census-tract level.[13]

The Evidence for Raising the Age to 21

In 2018, 4.9 million middle and high school students used some form of tobacco.[14According to the 2012 Surgeon General’s report youth initiation is a major factor in the tobacco epidemic. [15]  

Modeling data:

  • A model developed by researchers at UC Irvine showed that smoking prevalence for 15-17 year olds would drop from 22% to 9% in only seven years if the age of purchase were increased to 21 across the U.S. [16]
  • Models from a report by the Institute of Medicine suggest that smoking prevalence overall will drop significantly between 2015 and 2100 due to previously instituted tobacco control policies even with the MLSA at the status quo. However, they project that  smoking prevalence would drop by an additional 12% if the MLSA were raised to 21, compared to only an additional 3% if the MLSA were raised to 19.

Evaluation data:

  • In Oregon, a short-term evaluation of the state’s Tobacco 21 law, which went into effect on January 1, 2018, showed that recent tobacco use initiation decreased from 34% the month before the law took effect to 25% nine months after the law took effect among current tobacco users ages 13-17 and from 23% to 18% during that time among current tobacco users ages 18-20. In addition, perceived ease of access to tobacco decreased among tobacco users ages 18-20.
  • In California, an evaluation of the state’s Tobacco 21 law found that the RVR using youth decoys under age 18 decreased from 10.3% before the law was in effect to 5.7% afterwards.[17] As well, in a study of over 1,500 young adults aged 18-20, 54% of cigarette purchases and 44% of e-cigarette purchases reported it felt more difficult to purchase these tobacco products after implementation of Tobacco 21.[23]
  • An assessment of cigarette pack sales in California and Hawaii found that implementation of a Tobacco 21 policy was associated with a reduction of cigarette sales of 13.1% in California and 18.2% in Hawaii.[25]
  • A study assessing New York City’s Tobacco 21 law found that while the rate of adolescent tobacco use declined in New York City following the policy’s implementation in 2014, the rate of decline in adolescent tobacco use was greater in 4 Florida cities that did not have a Tobacco 21 policy in place.[20] However, New York City also already had many strong tobacco control policies in place (e.g. high excise taxes, a minimum price law with a price promotion ban, strong smokefree air laws, and a ban on flavored tobacco products), which may have had a greater effect on adolescent use rates than Tobacco 21.[19] In addition, New York City has a very diverse market with many small independent retailers and many neighboring areas without as strong tobacco policies. Researchers suggest that greater enforcement and monitoring is necessary to achieve the full benefits of a Tobacco 21 policy.
  • A study national study conducted November 2016 – May 2017 through an online survey found that across the US, 18-20 year olds who had tried a combustible cigarette or e-cigarette but lived in places with a Tobacco 21 law were 39% less likely to have recently smoked or to regularly smoke than 18-20 year olds who lived in a place without a Tobacco 21 law.[21]

Tobacco use is costly to society.  Every year, smoking costs the US over $289 billion in health care costs and lost productivity. If the MLSA were raised to 21, simulations project a net cumulative savings of $212 billion dollars through decreased projected prevalence of tobacco use and the subsequent savings in medical costs.[18Population health gains in terms of both length of life and health-related quality of life are likely to be 7 times greater when youth smoking initiation is prevented, rather than encouraging cessation among adults who smoke.[19] According to the 2012 Institute of Medicine, if the MLSA were raised to 21, it could prevent 223,000 premature deaths, 50,000 deaths from lung cancer, and 4.2 million years of life lost.

A higher MLSA limits social channels through which youth can get enough cigarettes to develop a regular smoking habit. Youth frequently rely on getting cigarettes from the 18-20 year olds in their social circles.[20Raising the MLSA reduces access to legal buyers in their daily routine (especially at school) and limits successful store purchases.[15]

Recruiting young adults as “replacement smokers” has long been a tobacco industry strategy to sustain their business. People who start smoking at an early age are more likely to later smoke regularly and heavily.[19] But as one RJR Reynolds researcher said in 1982,


Motivated by this knowledge, the tobacco industry markets directly to 18-21 year olds through promotions and marketing at bars, clubs, and parties in college towns as well as tobacco corporation-sponsored music and sporting events, capitalizing on this age group’s transition to adulthood as an opportunity to hook them on nicotine.[1522

While enforcement will require regular compliance checks, raising the MLSA will create less ambiguity for sales clerks.[15With the legal age set at 18, teens who look older than 16 have a higher success rate in purchasing tobacco products.[16] However, with the legal age is raised to 21, the same legal age to purchase alcohol, ID checks can become streamlined and less burdensome for retailers.[7


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Best Practices for Getting Started

  • Consult legal experts. The content on this site and associated resources are no substitute for actual legal advice.
  • Assess readiness. Complete the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids’ Campaigns to Raise the Minimum Legal Sale Age to 21: Readiness Assessment Questions
  • Assess existing youth access laws. Check to see what your state or community’s existing law is regarding youth access to tobacco. There may be room for the current law to be improved.

    • Is it an sale age policy or a PUP policy?
    • Is there preemption?
    • What penalties are included, and for whom?
    • Are all products (including e-cigarettes) covered?
    • What is the current enforcement infrastructure?

  • Consider health equity impacts. For an example of a Health Equity Impact Assessment for Tobacco 21, see Multnomah County, OR’s example. Download the executive summary or the full report.
  • Determine if your locality or state has a tobacco retailer licensing program. Tobacco 21 can be included as part of a retailer licensing program, which would also provide a list of retailers to use for enforcement and an enforcement structure.
  • Plan for enforcement and implementation up front. Determine who will be responsible for compliance, enforcement, and evaluation, and ensure that there is a dedicated budget for enforcement efforts. 
  • Consider increasing excise taxes to adjust for lost revenue over time and to see more immediate effects in reducing initiation. Learn more and see an example of one way to do this in Tobacco 21 in Michigan: New Evidence and Policy Considerations 
  • Review model policies and best practices:

  • Conduct public opinion surveys to measure community support for raising the minimum legal sales age to 21.
  • Engage stakeholders. Review the CDC’s Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs for tips.

More Resources:

Addressing the Arguments Against Tobacco 21


Impact on Retail: Raising the minimum legal sales age to 21 would hurt business for tobacco retailers

18-20-year-olds who smoke make up only 3.06% of the total adult population that smokes, and they account for 2.12% of total cigarette consumption in the US. [3If the national MLSA was raised to 21, tobacco retailers would only lose up to 2% of total cigarette sales. [3Tobacco retailers could then adjust to the changing market conditions and the longer-term effects on smoking prevalence just as alcohol retailers did when the drinking age was raised to 21.[3] Not all 18-20 year olds will quit immediately, meaning the effect will be gradual, and the money that individuals previously spent on tobacco will likely be spent on other products. In the four years following Needham, Massachusetts’s law changing to legal age to 21, high school smoking rates dropped 47% in 4 years following the change, but no tobacco retailers have gone out of business as a result. [3]   

Community and state bans may have limited impact because individuals can still cross the state line or go to another town to purchase tobacco.

During the following four years after Needham, MA raised the minimum legal sale age to 21, smoking rates decreased over twice as much as rates in surrounding towns. Read the Tobacco 21 Massachusetts for more information.

Since 18 is the legal age for voting and military service, 18 should be the age for purchasing tobacco, too.

Brain development is not complete until the 20’s, and nicotine may chemically alter a teen’s developing brain, making them more susceptible to addiction. Analysis of data from the 2014-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey found that those who started smoking before the age of 18 were 2.15 times as likely to become nicotine dependent in their lives, compared to those who started smoking at age 21 or older; furthermore, those who started smoking between the ages of 18 and 20 were 1.25 times as likely to become nicotine dependent in their lives than those who started smoking at age 21 or older.[24] At this vulnerable age, teenagers may also incur more lasting damage from tobacco smoke. In addition, some military leaders are supportive of Tobacco 21 policies due to tobacco’s impact on military readiness. For more information see “Raising the Tobacco Sale Age to 21 and the Military” from the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids.

Find more responses in support of Tobacco 21 here.

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